Closed Life Cycle Design

Reference: McDonough W & Braungart M, Cradle to Cradle, North Point Press, 2002.

The majority of strategies presented here will improve the sustainability of a product over its lifetime, but even if they are all implemented effectively, it is possible that the product may not meet the sustainability criteria of being Cyclic. If products are to maintain their value indefinitely and be truly sustainable, they must be designed with this intention in mind. Designers should plan the potential uses of the products several life cycles into the future.

environmental sustainability Pros: Reduced waste. Reduced resource consumption
financial sustainability Pros: Long term revenue streams. Long term cost savings
Cons: Increased development costs. Increased production costs
social sustainability Pros: